Spassky Stanislav (Moscow)

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      It is offered the description of simple (in principle) model of a perpetual motion machine of the second kind. This term is out of use in article because it was published in scientific journal of Russian Academy of Sciences. The page of journal with contents is adduced. (This article is marked by V there.) Please, notice at the end of article brief mention about new direction of this idea without using of membrane. Limited nature of article didnt allow inserting some ideas, concerning the technological realization of project. Proposals and advices are accepted.


     There is a certain branch of physics, the very history of which, including the history throughout last century shows, that the matters with it are not simple, and it is necessary to be very careful with categorical statements in it. The implying problem had been at first stated by Maxwell. In simplified version it is the idea to separate the particles being in thermal motion according to their directions of motion by any kind of micro-arrangements. Historically the problem was linked with laws of thermodynamics (that is not quite correct) and some taboo had hanged over it, which was embodied in manuals of physics and reference books. By this prohibition, as a matter of fact, a whole branch of physics was blocked, development of which would have huge significance, both theoretical and practical. At present time, on the one hand, intensive search of new energy sources is conducting. On the other hand, new technologies are strongly developing (nanotechnology). Therefore searching process time and again is turning back to this question.

     The idea of use the membrane with holes to separate the molecules by their direction of motion is not new. It means to impart some unidirectional (gated) property to holes of membrane. Author met, for example, the proposition to use the medium of oblong particles with strong magnetic or electric moment. For creation of dissymmetric conditions on membrane it is offered strong magnetic or electric field on one side of membrane for longitudinal orientation of particles to increase the probability their penetration through the narrow holes from this side. In respect of this idea it was outspoken the doubt regarding possibility of creation strong longitudinal field only at one side. And very low possibility of this field to orient the particles in conditions of real temperatures.

     Also, it is not new the idea to impart membrane holes by gated property only due to mechanical properties of membrane holes themselves. For example, it was examined the idea to get required result by means of conical form of holes. In this case it was made it clear theoretically, that such holes with rigid walls can not possess by gated property.

     In the context of deciding the problem by only mechanical properties it was made an attempt to analyze the possibility to obtain gated property on membrane by means of various covering of membrane and hole walls surfaces. Specifically, in this article it is proposed one of these methods, the most simple and transparent to reach the main purpose try to take away the taboo from this direction completely, to open it for public discussion, to attract the collective thought, the specialists in thriving region of nanotechnology.

     Thus, suggested utility model belongs to region of nanotechnology. To impart the quality of unidirectionality to membrane holes for atoms and molecules, being in thermal motion, depending on the side of membrane, from which the particle fall into the hole, it is proposed to cover the surface of holes by nap short linear molecules, which have pronounced inclination (statistically) in one side along hole axis. It is supposed, that diameter and height of holes are values of the same order with free path of particles (for the simplification of analysis, although it looks they may be more). In this case it is supposed that conditions will be very different for reflection of particles with inclined trajectories from walls of holes, depending on the side of membrane, from which the particle fall into the hole. Supposed result on the different sides of membrane it is produced different pressure of particles. Rotator, vanes of which contains as fragments described membranes, and putted in hermetic vessel, has to set in rotation. The process of extraction of energy from rotator is not complicated, for example, by means of magnetic drive mechanism. The walls of vessel must ensure good heat application. Of course, a lot of engineering problems will arise. For example, optimization of length and covering density of nap, composition of working gas. The question of making of inclined nap is difficult.

     But it looks the idea is quite realizable. Supposed complexity of its technical realization should not restrain its development. One could recall as an example the history of the computer engineering, evident underestimation of its potential possibilities on initial stages. One ought not to undervalue the power of collective thought.

     Very important direction of this idea is that analogous result can be obtained without membrane with holes. But only with revolving object, surface of which is clothed by foregoing nap having pronounced inclination locally in one direction round the object revolution axis.

     So, the discussion of concerned idea has as theoretical as practical significance. It's hard to evaluate the practical importance in case of its technical realization, even in respect of ecology and decrease of risk of man-caused catastrophes. In case of acknowledgment of its correctness Russia could get considerable benefit by staking out a claim on the international level.

      The alternative interpretation of special relativity and q/m in popular form.

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